Lately, the application of natural ventilation in homes, especially houses in big cities, began to be abandoned by residents and architects themselves by relying more on air conditioning. By optimizing the application of natural air conditioning and reducing the use of air conditioning, will bring a positive impact on the health and comfort of residents. In addition, it also saves the use of energy that has a positive impact on the surrounding environment, namely reducing global warming. But it is not easy to apply natural ventilation into the home because there are often errors in regulating air circulation such as the entry of solar radiation and hot air into the house so that residents are not in the desired thermal comfort conditions, this is where residents then start using artificial ventilation or air conditioning.
Air circulation in a building is influenced by temperature, humidity, and air movement. To create a comfortable home, it is necessary to maintain a balance between these factors and the changing climate conditions outside the building. If the conditions outside the building are hot, then the conditions in the room must remain neutral and comfortable for the occupants by bringing cool or cold air in. How to design a good air circulation for homes?
1. Open orientation
Often in placing openings we only pursue the appearance of the facade and forget the side effects of the existence of these openings. Tips on choosing a good opening orientation are to face south and north so that you are not exposed to direct sunlight and follow the direction of the monsoon that flows north-south. But if the openings are forced to be placed west and east, I have a solution to deal with incoming solar radiation. Vertical blinds (like in the picture) and horizontal blinds can be a solution if openings are forced to be placed east or west.
2. Cross Ventilation
Cross ventilation is done by providing openings on two sides facing each other with openings that are not the same purpose to facilitate the entry and exit of air. As discussed, regarding the effect of humidity on air circulation, cross ventilation also helps the stability of humidity in a room. But it should not be arbitrary in putting openings and choosing the right window so that solar radiation does not enter the room.
The next tip is vegetation. Shadows on trees can help create shady space. In addition, the tree can also function as a vertical blind by placing the tree in front of the opening by adjusting the size of the opening so that what happens is the entry of air but does not enter solar radiation. Which is currently often used is a vertical garden because it can prevent incoming solar radiation but also displays a natural but elegant impression as a building facade.
4. Height of the House Ceiling
For the climate in Indonesia, the higher the ceiling, the better the air circulation that occurs in the room. Ideally, the ceiling height for a residential house is 2.8 – 3.2 meters. Two-story houses are recommended to apply voids so that good air movement occurs
5. Roof Formation
The shape of the roof can also be used to create passive air in the house. The shape of the pyramid roof or another roof shape that has a large enough slope is a characteristic of buildings in tropical climates to present passive air in the dwelling. With the shape of the pyramid roof, it will create an empty space between the roof and ceiling. The empty space becomes a place for hot air to collect so it does not go down directly into the room. Because hot air is trapped, the space under the ceiling becomes cooler. the truth is the shield. There is space between the roof and ceiling to store hot air so that the room in the house is not exposed to hot air.
6. Terrace of the House
Home terraces can also affect passive airings that occur in space. Terrace houses are identical with openings, can potentially be openings for spaces that are nearby. With the opening on the terrace, allowing airflow from outside the room to be able to enter the house through the terrace. With the influx of wind flow, air circulation and air conditioning in the room becomes better.
7. Spatial Planning
Structuring of space also affects passive air in space. So that air circulation in the house is good, then the house must have a wide space and non-winding space circulation. With such an arrangement of space in the house, then the airflow can enter the entire house easily so as to maximize the passive air that occurs in the house.